Citrine is the transparent pale yellow to golden orange variety of quartz.
Most citrine on the market today is heat-treated amethyst. A technology developed since the 18th century, heat treating is an industry-accepted process that permanently changes the color and clarity of a gemstone.
Naturally occurring citrine is not very common, and there are not many yellow gemstones other than citrine and golden topaz. Thus it is not surprising that citrine has a long history of being sold as golden topaz, a much more expensive gemstone. The real difference between citrine and topaz is that they are made of completely different minerals and have very different properties. Topaz is much harder and heavier than quartz, and it tends to have more fire. Topaz is also more brittle than citrine, which means that it breaks more easily than citrine.
Citrine derives its name from the French word citron for "lemon."
Birthstone, modern, alternative: November
Wedding anniversary, traditional: 13th